Return to Dr. Jacob Schrum's Homepage

Quantum Zentanglement

This page presents a method of digital art generation that combines the evolution of Compositional Pattern Producing Networks (CPPNs) with Procedural Content Generation via Wave Function Collapse (WFC). CPPNs are a type of generative encoding that has been used to create a variety of art, including images, sculptures, and animations. WFC can arrange various images in a grid by solving an adjacency constraint problem. The two tools can be combined to create intricate patterns, which can be mixed together to create art reminiscent of Zentangles, a meditative art form. The system can generate art through both automatic evolution, and interactive evolution.

This system was developed by undergraduate students Anna Krolikowski, Sarah Friday, and Alice Quintanilla as a term project for the class CSC54-424 - Artificial Intelligence at Southwestern University in Spring 2019. Anna and Sarah then developed the system further for the purpose of publication. Examples of Zentangles created by the system are featured below. To get full access to the data from automated and interactive evolution experiments discussed in the paper, go to this Google Drive link. The source code for evolving these Zentangles is available on GitHub.

Video Presentation


Video presentation prepared by Anna Krolikowski and Sarah Friday for EvoMUSART 2020 after the conference shifted to a virtual format due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This video was actually a backup in case of technical difficulties with a synchronous presentation, but was not needed. This video was also used for the Southwestern University Research and Creative Works Symposium.

Human Interactive Evolution


Results of humans interactively evolving art for Zentangles.

Half-Black Fitness


Automatic evolution: Attempts to make images have 50% black pixels, so that final Zentangles have a mesh of different patterns.

Half-Black-3-Colors Fitness


Automatic evolution: Like Half-Black, but also has separate fitness functions for each color channel (RGB) that are competing to maximize presence of that color. Creates diverse color palettes in population.

Random Fitness (Color)


Automatic evolution: Random fitness function with color images.

Random Fitness (Black and White)


Automatic evolution: Random fitness function with black-and-white images.

Associated Publications


Peer-Reviewed Conference Publications


Undergraduate Poster Presentations Supervised


Associated Movies


Miscellaneous Content

  • Spring 2019: Infinite Art Gallery: A Game World of Interactively Evolved Artwork, presentation by Bryan Hollingsworth at the Southwestern University Undergraduate Research & Creative Works Symposium
  • Fall 2018: The cover of SIGEVOlution Volume 11, Issue 4 features art generated by AnimationBreeder, the interactive evolution system described in a GECCO 2018 paper co-authored with SU students. SIGEVO is the ACM Special Interest Group on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation.
  • Fall 2018: Evolutionary Computation Applied to Digital Entertainment and the Arts, poster presented at the President's Appreciation Celebration for Southwestern University donors.
  • Summer 2018: Neuroevolution in Video Games: "Mad Science Monday" presentation made by my SCOPE Summer research students to present to other SCOPE students
  • Spring 2018: Querying Across Time to Interactively Evolve Animations, presentation by Isabel Tweraser at the Southwestern University Undergraduate Research & Creative Works Symposium
  • Fall 2017: Creating Art Through Function Composition: presented to Southwestern University students as a 107 Lecture.
  • Summer 2017: Evolutionary Computation for Creativity and Intelligence: "Mad Science Monday" presentation made by my SCOPE Summer research students to present to other SCOPE students
  • Summer 2016: Evolutionary Computation for Creativity and Intelligence: "Mad Science Monday" presentation made by my SCOPE Summer research students to present to other SCOPE students

  • Last Updated: 1/12/2020